Numbers with references:
- 35 percent of women worldwide — more than one in three — said they had experienced violence in their lifetime, whether physical, sexual, or both. One in 10 girls under the age of 18 was forced to have sex. [UN Report on violence against women worldwide, 2015]
- Research has indicated that investing early to prevent conflicts from escalating into violent crises is, on average, 60 times more cost effective than intervening after violence erupts. [Based on research found in the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict’s The Cost of Conflict: Prevention and Cure in the Global Arena (Ed. Michael E. Brown and Richard N. Rosecrance, 1999)]
- The world spends just $1 on conflict prevention for every $1,885 it spends on military budgets. Here in the U.S., less than 2% of income tax goes to civilian foreign affairs agencies; meanwhile, 39% goes to the military. And though taxpayers provide almost $1 billion per year for military academies, they pay only about $40 million for the United States Institute of Peace—the only U.S. agency dedicated to conflict prevention and peacebuilding. [Friends Committee on National Legislation report, Prevention is 60:1 Cost Effective, 2011]
- American children are 14 times more likely to die from guns than children in other developed countries [Private Guns, Public Health, David Hemenway, University of Michigan Press]
- Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10–24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. [CDC. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2013. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html.]
- There is a demonstrable 42% reduction in physical and verbal youth violence through Life Skills Training in school. [Preventing youth violence and delinquency through a universal school-based prevention approach. Prevention Science, (2006).]
- In a national sample of 148,189 sixth to twelfth graders, only 29% to 45% of surveyed students reported that they had social competencies such as empathy, decision making, and conflict resolution skills; and only 29% indicated that their school provided a caring, encouraging environment. [Benson, P. L. (2006). All kids are our kids: What communities must do to raise caring and responsible children and adolescents (2nd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.]
- Research finds that Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) programs are frequently associated with positive student outcomes such as an increase in pro-social behaviors and improved academic performance. More than three-quarters of the teachers believe a larger focus on SEL will be a major benefit to students because of the positive effect on workforce readiness (87 percent), school attendance and graduation (80 percent), life success (87 percent), college preparation (78 percent), and academic success (75 percent). <- source??
- A Columbia University study examined the economic returns from investments in six prominent social and emotional learning interventions—from learning and literacy programs to combat aggression and violence; to efforts to promote positive thinking, actions, and self-concepts; to practices that improve problem-solving abilities, capacities to manage emotions, and the very skills that lead to greater student motivation and engagement in their learning. Their findings are striking: Each of the socially and emotionally focused programs—4R’s, Positive Action, Life Skills Training, Second Step, Responsive Classroom, and Social and Emotional Training (Sweden)—showed significant benefits that exceeded costs. In fact, the average among the six interventions showed that for every dollar invested, there is a return of more than 11 dollars. [The Economic Value of Social and Emotional Learning, February 2015, Center for Benefits-Cost Studies in Education, Teachers College, Columbia University]
- About 1 in 3 high school students say they have been in a physical fight in the past year, and about 1 in 8 of those students required medical attention for their injuries. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth risk behavior surveillance – United States, 2001. In: CDC Surveillance Summaries, June 28, 2002. MMWR, 51(SS-4), p. 5.)
- Of children in sixth through tenth grade, more than 3.2 million-nearly one in six-are victims of bullying each year, while 3.7 million bully other children. (“Bullying Prevention is Crime Prevention,” Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, 2003)
- Nearly 60 percent of boys who researchers classified as bullies in grades six through nine were convicted of at least one crime by the age of 24. Even more dramatic, 40 percent of them had three or more convictions by age 24. (“Bullying Prevention is Crime Prevention,” Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, 2003)
- A study on the cost-effectiveness of early intervention to prevent serious crime in California, showed that training for parents whose children exhibited aggressive behavior was estimated to have prevented 157 serious crimes (such as homicide, rape, arson and robbery) for every $1 million spent. In fact, training in parenting skills was estimated to be about three times as cost-effective as the so-called ‘‘three-strikes’’ law in California. [Greenwood PW et al. Diverting children from a life of crime: measuring costs and benefits. Rand, 1996.]
- 28% of U.S. students in grades 6–12 experienced bullying. [National Center for Education Statistics and Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement , 2011.]
- Approximately 30% of young people admit to bullying others in surveys. [Bradshaw, C.P., Sawyer, A.L., & O’Brennan, L.M. (2007). Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff. School Psychology Review, 36(3), 361-382.]
- According to one large study, the following percentages of middle schools students had experienced these various types of bullying: name calling (44.2 %); teasing (43.3 %); spreading rumors or lies (36.3%); pushing or shoving (32.4%); hitting, slapping, or kicking (29.2%); leaving out (28.5%); threatening (27.4%); stealing belongings (27.3%); sexual comments or gestures (23.7%); e-mail or blogging (9.9%). [Bradshaw, C.P., Sawyer, A.L., & O’Brennan, L.M. (2007). Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff. School Psychology Review, 36(3), 361-382.]
- According to one large study, the following percentages of middle schools students had experienced bullying in these various places at school: classroom (29.3%); hallway or lockers (29.0%); cafeteria (23.4%); gym or PE class (19.5%); bathroom (12.2%); playground or recess (6.2%). [Bradshaw, C.P., Sawyer, A.L., & O’Brennan, L.M. (2007). Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff. School Psychology Review, 36(3), 361-382.]
- Only about 20 to 30% of students who are bullied notify adults about the bullying. [Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P. (2011). Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: a systematic and meta-analytic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology,7(1), 27-56.]
One in 5 women and one in 16 men are sexually assaulted while in college (Krebs, C. P., Lindquist, C., Warner, T., Fisher, B., & Martin, S. (2007). The campus sexual assault (CSA) study: Final report. Retrieved from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/221153.pdf)
Rape is the most under-reported crime; 63% of sexual assaults are not reported to police (Rennison, C. A. (2002). Rape and sexual assault: Reporting to police and medical attention, 1992-2000 [NCJ 194530]. Retrieved from the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics: http://bjs.ojp. usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/rsarp00.pdf)
In a study of undergraduate women, 19% experienced attempted or completed sexual assault since entering college. (Krebs CP, Linquist CH, Warner TD, Fisher BS, Martin SL. College women’s experiences with physically forced, alcohol- or other drug-enabled, and drug-facilitated sexual assault before and since entering college. Journal of American College Health 2009; 57(6):639-647.)
- Few programs have been shown to prevent sexual violence, but one program "safe dates" which features improving peer helping and dating conflict-resolution skills is one of two programs that are found to have positive results. "Safe Dates has five components: a ten-session course, a play script, a poster contest, parent materials, and a teacher training outline. Research found reductions in sexual dating violence perpetration and victimization that continued through a four-year follow-up period." (Foshee VA, Bauman KE, Ennett ST, Suchindran C, Benefield T, Linder GF. Assessing the effects of the dating violence prevention program "safe dates" using random coefficient regression modeling. Prev Sci. 2005; 6(3):245–258., A systematic review of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359178914000536)
- Center for Disease Control and Prevention has a very cool interactive and customizable information display up to 2013 here.
- Around one-third of students report having been involved in fighting, with males 2–3 times more likely than females to have fought. Bullying is also prevalent among school-age children [O’Moore AM et al. Bullying behaviour in Irish schools: a nationwide study. Irish Journal of Psychology, 1997, 18:141–169.] & [Currie C, ed. Health behaviour in school-aged children: a WHO cross-national study. Bergen, University of Bergen, 1998.].
- In a study of health behaviour among school-aged children in 27 countries, the majority of 13-year-olds in most countries were found to have engaged in bullying at least some of the time (see Table 2.2) (Currie C, ed. Health behaviour in school-aged children: a WHO cross-national study. Bergen, University of Bergen, 1998.). Apart from being forms of aggression, bullying and physical fighting can also lead to more serious forms of violence ( Loeber R et al. Developmental pathways in disruptive child behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 1993, 5:103–133.).
- Between 20% and 45% of boys and 47% and 69% of girls who are serious violent offenders at the age of 16–17 years are on what is termed a ‘‘life-course persistent developmental pathway’’ (Youth violence: a report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC, United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2001., D’Unger AV et al. How many latent classes of delinquent/criminal careers? Results from a mixed Poisson regression analysis. American Sociological Review, 1998, 103:1593–1620., Huizinga D, Loeber R, Thornberry TP. Recent findings from a program of research on the causes 50 . WORLD REPORT ON VIOLENCE AND HEALTH and correlates of delinquency. Washington, DC, United States Department of Justice, 1995., Nagin D, Tremblay RE. Trajectories of boys’ physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. Child Development, 1999, 70:1181–1196., Patterson GR, Yoerger K. A developmental model for late-onset delinquency. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1997, 44:119–177., Stattin H, Magnusson M. Antisocial development: a holistic approach. Development and Psychopathology, 1996, 8:617–645.). Young people who fit into this category commit the most serious violent acts and often continue their violent behaviour into adulthood (Loeber R, Farrington DP, Waschbusch DA. Serious and violent juvenile offenders. In: Loeber R, Farrington DP, eds. Serious and violent juvenile offenders: risk factors and successful interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage, 1998:13–29., Moffitt TE. Adolescence-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 1993, 100:674–701., Tolan PH. Implications of onset for delinquency risk identification. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1987, 15:47–65., Tolan PH, Gorman-Smith D. Development of serious and violent offending careers. In: Loeber R, Farrington DP, eds. Serious and violent juvenile offenders: risk factors and successful interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage, 1998:68–85.).
- A study of delinquency in Montreal, Canada, showed that, when the perpetrators were in their teenage years or early twenties, about half of violent personal attacks were motivated by the search for excitement, often with co-offenders, and half by rational or utilitarian objectives (LeBlanc M, Frechette M. Male criminal activity from childhood through youth. New York, NY, SpringerVerlag, 1989.). For all crimes, however, the main motivation switched from being thrill-seeking in the perpetrators’ teenage years to utilitarian – involving prior planning, psychological intimidation and the use of weapons – in their twenties ( Agnew R. The origins of delinquent events: an examination of offender accounts. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 1990, 27:267–294.)
- The National Survey of Youth in the United States found that assaults were generally committed in retaliation for a previous attack, out of revenge, or because of provocation or anger ( Agnew R. The origins of delinquent events: an examination of offender accounts. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 1990, 27:267–294.).
- In a follow-up study of over 1000 children in Dunedin, New Zealand, boys with violent convictions up to the age of 18 years were significantly more likely to have had poor scores in behavioural control (for example, impulsiveness and lack of persistence) at the age of 3–5 years, compared with boys with no convictions or with convictions for non-violent offences (Henry B et al. Temperamental and familial predictors of violent and nonviolent criminal convictions: age 3 to age 18. Developmental Psychology, 1996, 32:614–623.). In the same study, personality factors of constraint (such as cautiousness and the avoidance of excitement) and of negative emotionality (such as nervousness and alienation) at the age of 18 years were significantly inversely correlated with convictions for violence (Caspi A et al. Are some people crime-prone? Replications of the personality–crime relationship across countries, genders, races, and methods. Criminology, 1994, 32:163–195.).
- The influence of families is usually the greatest in this respect during childhood, while during adolescence friends and peers have an increasingly important effect (Dahlberg L. Youth violence in the United States: major trends, risk factors, and prevention approaches. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 1998, 14:259–272.)
- Programmes that emphasize social and competency skills appear to be among the most effective among youth violence prevention strategies (Youth violence: a report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC, United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2001.). They also appear to be more effective when delivered to children in preschool and primary school environments rather than to secondary school students.